Brief Review


Neurobiochemistry I

Understand the importance of the pituitary and hypothalamus.

Know the biochemistry/physiology of Vasopressin (ADH) and Oxytocin along with the Neurophysins I/II.

Understand the processing of Vasopressin and Oxytocin.

Be able to describe in words the "Stimulus and Secretion of Vasopressin Release from Pituitary".

Be able to describe in words the "Mechanism of Action in the Kidney Distal Tubule Cell" for Vasopressin.

Define diabetes insipidus and distinguish it from diabetes mellitus.

Review Gs and Gp protein stuff. You should be able to describe how these receptors work.........

Memorize this Table: "Central Nervous System Activity of Hormones".

Know the type of G-protein and second messengers produced by TRH, GnRH, CRH, GHRH, GHIH.

Don't worry about Gi.

Neurobiochemistry II

Know the biochemistry/physiology of Growth Hormone (GH) and Prolactin.

Understand the "Regulation of Secretion and Synthesis of GH".

Be able to describe in words what happens to Bone, Muscle and Fat in the three year experiment done on a GH deficient child.

SKIP the "Hematopoietin Receptor Superfamily" stuff.

Be able to describe in words how the "Growth Hormone Receptor" works.

Notice in the "Tissue Specific Distribution of GH Receptor" graph the lack of receptors in Bone. Explain this (i.e. the Insulin Like Growth Factor-I, IGF-I story....).

Explain how two receptors can be "biologically equivalent" in vitro yet produce diverse biochemistry/physiology (i.e. IGF-I and Insulin).

Understand the biochemistry/physiology of Prolactin.

Thyroid Hormone System

You need to know everything in the Study Guide found on the web site.

Calcium Homeostasis/PTH/Vitamin D

Understand the biochemistry/physiology of Calcium.

Be able to describe in words the "Physiology of Calcium Metabolism" diagram.

List the functions of Parathyroid Hormone.

SKIP the "Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Calcium Homeostasis in the Parathyroid Cell" diagram.

List the functions of Vitamin D.

SKIP the "Control of Blood Ca2+ and PO43-" diagram.

Define and understand the difference between Hyper- and Hypo-parathyroidism.

Know the biochemistry/physiology of PTH.

SKIP the Clinical Correlate "Pseudohypoparathyroidism".

Know the biochemistry/physiology of Calcitonin (CT).

Explain how two receptors can be "biologically equivalent" in vitro yet produce diverse biochemistry/physiology (i.e. CT and PTH).

Know the pathways, names only, for the "Photosynthesis of Vitamin D3" and the "Bioactivation and Inactivation of Vitamin D3".

Be able to recognize the different abbreviations used in the Vitamin D story, i.e. 1,25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3 etc

Understand the legend (words) following the "Regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 Production" but SKIP the diagram itself.

Again know the actions of theactions of the receptor, i)-iv), but SKIP the "Biochemical Mode of 1,25(OH)2D3 Action" diagram.

Understand, in detail, the Clinical Correlates for Rickets, Type I and II and Osteoporosis (more detail can be found in the "Sex Steroid Hormone " lecture).


Understand numbers 1. through 9. in the lecture notes.

For 2.: Know the pathway, names only, for the "Biosynthesis of Cholesterol". Note: don't worry about the number of steps or reactant/enzyme names between Squalene and Cholesterol.

For 9.: just understand the "words" and SKIP the diagram.

Be able to list the steps necessary when the "Body Needs to Increase Cholesterol" vs. when the "Body Needs to Decrease Cholesterol". Note: SKIP the "Via HMG-CoA Reductase and LDL Receptor Induction" diagram.

Memorize the Table: "Cholesterol Lowering Drugs".

SKIP the "Summary of Cholesterol Metabolism".

Adrenal Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis

Know the general features of the Steroid Hormones.

List the Types of Steroid Hormones and what Endocrine Gland produces them.

Know the pathway, names only, for the "Biosynthesis of the Adrenal Steroid Hormones". That is know the "Subcellular Compartmentalization of Glucocorticoid Biosynthesis" diagram. Note: Subcellular Compartmentalization refers to the synthesis of Cortisol occuring in the zona fasciculata (ZF) and the synthesis of Aldosterone occuring in the zona glomerulosa (ZG) in the Adrenal Cortex.

A key reaction in the synthesis of ALL steroid hormones is the conversion of Cholesterol to Pregnenolone by P-450scc.

Undertsand that the synthesis of the adrenal steroid hormones involves the shuttling of precursors between the mitochondria and the ER by listing which enzymes in the pathway are found in the mitochondria and which in the ER. SKIP the diagram......

SKIP the "Control of Glucocorticoid (Cortisol) Synthesis" section and the diagram of "Neuroendocrine Pathways in Emotional Stress Leading to Adrenal Activation".

Be able to explain using words (or diagraming if this is easier) the "Proposed Mechanism of Action of ACTH in the ZF of the Adrenal Cortex".


Understand the biochemistry/physiology of Aldosterone.

Be able to describe in words the "Mechanism of Action of Aldosterone" in the kidney "Distal Convoluted Tubule Cell".

Understand the biochemistry/physiology/regulation and processing of Angiotensin II and Renin (an "enzyme").

Be able to discuss, in words, the "Dynamic Control of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System".

Decribe the biochemistry/physiology of Atrial Natiuretic Peptide (ANP). How does ANP fit into the "Dynamic Control of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System" (i.e. the "Hypothesized Antagonistic Relationship Between ANP and Renin-Angiotensin System in the CNS and Periphery").

Be able to list the Renal, Adrenal and Atrial effects of ANP.

Be able to describe how the Gg receptor works, i.e. the "Receptor Mediated Mechanism of Action of ANP and Angiotensin II".

Sex Steroid Hormones

Know the pathway, names only, for the "Adrenal Androgen (Testosterone) Biosynthesis".

Understand the "Actions of Testicular Hormones", i.e. The, Androgens, testosterone and DHT, acting through nuclear receptors are involved in....... Don't worry about the diagram of the receptor.

Know the pathway, names only, for the "Biosynthesis of Estrogens".

Know the "Functions and Biochemical Actions of the Ovarian Hormones".

SKIP the "Synthetic Agonists and Antagonists of Estrogens and Progestins".

Be able to explain the link between cancer and estrogen receptors.

Understand the causes/prevention of Osteoporosis, i.e. be able to discuss the effects of estrogen on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. SKIP the diagram "Estrogen Regulates Bone Cell Cytokines".

Know the notes cold.

Use the worksheets and quizzes to help you study.

© Dr. Noel Sturm 2015