Brief Review


Know the biochemical and physiological effects of Epinephrine.

The biosynthesis of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine, you DO need to be able to draw this pathway and recognize its features, the reactants, products and enzymes.

Degradation by COMT and MAO results in many compounds.....

Catecholamines act through two major clases of receptors designated a- or b- adrenergic, each consists of 2 subclasses, i.e. a1, a2, b1 and b2.

You should know the second messengers for the Gs and Gp receptors.

Understand the next step in the G-protein receptor story, i.e. following activation of Adenylate Cyclase c-AMP is produced which then activates Protein Kinase A.

Fat Metabolism: Overview and Synthesis

Acetyl CoA Carboxylase- important reaction.

Fatty Acid Synthase- know this in detail.

Acyl-CoA Synthetase- important reaction (activation of fatty acids).

Regulation of Lipogenesis- understand this.

Esterification- don't worry about this material.....

Fat Metabolism: Degradation

Physiological Pathways of Lipid Oxidation- understand this.

Lipolysis- know the roles of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase and Lipoprotein Lipase, don't worry about the Overview of Hepatic Fatty Acid Degradation picture.

Carnitines Role in Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Transport (Mitochondrial Uptake and b-Oxidation of Fatty Acids)- important information to know.

b-Oxidation of Free Fatty Acids: Odd and Even Chains- understand the pathways, know the end-products from each (even and odd).

Understand Normal Prevention of Ketoacidosis and what tissues can use ketones as fuels. Don't worry about the Ketone Body Formation in Liver picture or ketone body oxidation.

Fat Metabolism: Regulation and Integration

Important- Hormone-Sensitive Lipase, Acetyl CoA Carboxylase, Coordinated Control and the Conditions favoring Lipogenesis vs. Lipolysis. Do not worry about the "Interrelationship" diagrams or the Energy Comparisons. Do, however, look at the summary table following the Energy Comparison data and understand "fuel efficiency".

Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

Understand the General material about Prostaglandins, i.e. physiological effects.

Liberation of Arachidonic Acid and its Metabolism- the "Big Picture" is important, also inhibitors of Phospholipase A2 and Cyclooxygenase.

The Three Series of Eicosanoids and Their Biosynthetic Origins- Understand this picture, i.e. how the Series 3 prostaglandins are synthesized from the Essential Fatty Acids but certainly don't memorize all of the different Series 3 compounds or the specific pathways!

Conversion of Arachidonic Acid to Series 2 PG's and TX's- just realize that all of the Series 2 compounds come from a central intermediate, PGH2.

Structure and Mechanism of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition by Aspirin and the Conversion of Arachidonic Acid to Series 4 Leukotrienes- don't worry about this.

Understand Platelet Aggregation including the physiology and biochemistry of PGI2 (Gs), TXA2 (Gi), PGI3 and TXA3.

Understand the role of leukotrienes and Peptido-leukotrienes in allergic reactions.

Amino Acid Metabolism

You need to know everything in the Study Guide found on the web site.

Protein Turnover / Ammonia Metabolism

Understand Protein Turnover, Nitrogen Economy, the Regulation of Protein Turnover and Nitrogen Economy and the physiological Roles of Protein Degradation / Metabolism.

Ammonia Metabolism and Nitrogen Waste- the Transaminase reaction and the Glutamate Dehydrogenase reaction are important. Don't worry about the Nitrogen Excretion table.

The Urea Cycle- you DO need to be able to draw this pathway, i.e. know the Structures of all Substrates/ Products and the names of the Enzymes.

Clinical Correlate: Inherited Hyperammonemia- don't worry about this material.

Heme Metabolism

Clinical Correlate: the Van den Bergh Test and Types / Causes of "Jaundice" are important.

Overview of Biochemical Endocrinology

Understand the Properties of Hormones.

Hormones Controlling Glucose Homeostasis- if you don't already, you should know this.....

Classification of Hormones by Receptor Properties and General features of Hormone Classes- ALL of this material is important.

Understand how Gs and Gp proteins work (see also "Membranes I and II", "Insulin and Glucagon", "Catecholamines" for G-protein review).

Vitamin A and Vision

Know the Role, Active Forms (no structures), Sources and Consequences of Deficiencies.

The Chemistry, Metabolism and Functions of Vitamin A- know the names of the substrates, products and enzymes. Know the functions (physiological / biochemical roles) of the different active forms. Note which reactions in the pathway are reversible and which are not.

Know the notes cold.

Use the worksheets and quizzes to help you study.

© Dr. Noel Sturm 2015